- I use administrative records on criminal activity linked to unemployment insurance wage data to study earnings, job loss, and crime. Focusing on ex-offenders, I find arrest risk increases 40% immediately after job loss in a mass layoff, with effects concentrated in property crimes and domestic violence. Panel regressions estimated using coworkers’ earnings and employment as instruments yield similar results and a quarterly offending-income elasticity of -0.1. Analysis of seasonal patterns in crime and regression kink estimates of offending rates around maximum unemployment insurance benefit thresholds confirm that income losses are an important mechanism, consistent with Becker/Ehrlich rational models.
- In 2013, Seattle, WA, implemented a "ban the box" (BTB) ordinance prohibiting public and private employers in the city from asking prospective hires about their criminal history until after an initial screening. I evaluate the law theoretically and empirically. I first use a classic statistical discrimination model to show that while BTB must have opposite effects on individuals with and without criminal records, respectively, its impacts on specific demographic groups' average employment rates are theoretically ambiguous. I then test whether Seattle's law did affect individuals with records using employment and earnings data from the state unemployment insurance system for 300,000 ex-offenders. These results show that BTB had no detectable impact on ex-offenders' employment or wages across multiple difference-in-differences research designs. Given the zero effect of BTB, other policies that target the overall employability of ex-offenders are likely to be more effective, especially since this population's employment rates and earnings remain extremely low even before initial conviction.
The Rise and Fall of Female Labor Force Participation During World War II (revision in progress)
Revise and Resubmit at The Journal of Economic History
- I use newly digitized and existing data on military manpower mobilization, employment in war-related industries, and public employment office activities to revisit the impact of World War II on female labor force participation (FLFP). First, I show that geographic variation in female employment during the war was largely driven by the allocation of military contracts. Manpower mobilization, which several recent studies implicitly use as an instrument for female labor demand, has a limited connection to wartime work. Second, I show that the wartime boom in female employment had no detectable effect on FLFP by 1950 beyond modest effects in manufacturing industries for white women. Finally, I provide evidence using data and narratives from the U.S. Employment Service (USES) that the decline in female employment immediately following the war was the result of displacement by returning veterans and sharp cutbacks in war-related industries, rather than drops in female labor supply. The results suggest that the rapid rise of female employment during WWII was made possible by temporary changes in labor demand that quickly reverted at the war's conclusion. Permanent shifts in opportunities for women in the labor force would continue to evolve gradually over the ensuing decades, despite the sudden and short-lived WWII shock.